Lincoln’s Tax War
Documented by the official acts and statements (excerpts in italics below) of the political
authorities who actually waged the War.  Written by Roger Broxton and may be copied,
printed, forwarded to others and/or posted on social media.

Abraham Lincoln and the U.S. Congress declared in all official acts that the
War was fought over taxes only and not slavery, at all

There is no proof of Lincoln or Congress ever declaring a war over slavery,
not even in Lincoln's Fake
Emancipation Proclamation, which exempted a
million slaves under Lincoln’s control from being freed, including General U.S.
Grant’s four slaves.

Without such proof, the war over slavery hate speech remains a total lie
that divides Americans
and causes our Confederate Veterans' Symbols, Names,
Monuments and Holidays to be
attacked for NO reason.

Our 800,000 Confederate States Veterans served, 260,000 died, and over
150,000 were maimed for life,
defending the South from Lincoln's invasion
to collect Wall Street's oppressive, unfair taxes and defending the voluntary
union of
"Independent States", promised 3 times in bold print, by the
Founding Fathers in the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

March 4, 1861,
Abraham Lincoln declared in his First Inaugural Address:  
             "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the
of slavery in the States where it exists.  I believe I have no lawful
right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so."  
(Paragraph 4)
         "I understand a proposed (Corwin) Amendment to the Constitution has
passed Congress
, to the effect that the Federal Government shall never
interfere with the domestic institutions of the States, including that of
persons held to service
(slavery).  Holding such a provision to now be implied
Constitutional law,
I have no objection to its being made express and
.”  (Paragraph 32)
         The power confided to me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess
the property and places belonging to the government
(four Federal tax
collection forts)
, and to collect the duties (tariffs) and imposts (import taxes);
beyond what may be necessary for these objects, there will be no invasion,
no using of force against or among the people anywhere.”  
(Paragraph 21)    
Click, to read Lincoln's First Inaugural Address

On March 2, 1861, the U.S. Congress, by a two-thirds vote of both Houses,
passed a Constitutional Amendment
(Corwin) guaranteeing permanent
slavery in the U.S.
, after most Southern States had withdrawn from the (then)
voluntary union.

On March 4, 1861, (see above),
Lincoln endorsed this Constitutional
(Corwin).  It was ratified by three Northern States:  Ohio,
Maryland and Illinois,
but by none of the Southern States.   
Click to read Corwin Amendment      

Passage of the Corwin Amendment is irrefutable proof that the North and
Lincoln supported permanent slavery in the U.S.  Therefore, the War could
not be fought over slavery, at all, because
both sides supported slavery.

Unless the North was fighting to abolish slavery, it was impossible for the
South to be fighting to maintain slavery.  
The South could not be defending
something, which was not threatened.

Slavery was not abolished by the War, Lincoln or Congress, just the name
was changed from “slave” to “sharecropper”
, with 5 million White
Southerners and 3.5 million Black Southerners
working on land stolen by
Lincoln's Wall Street owners, who financed Lincoln's elections and his Tax War.

On the very same day, March 2, 1861, that the U.S. Congress passed their
permanent slavery Amendment (
Corwin), Congress also passed their Morrill
Tariff Act
, (U.S. Statutes At Large 36th Congress, Session 2, Chapter 68),
doubled the Federal sales tax on imports from an average 20% to an
average 40%
.  This then allowed Northern manufacturers to raise their average
prices 40% higher
than prices were for European imports with no tariff.
Click to read Morrill Tariff Act of 1861

Under the Morrill Tariff Act, pioneer settlers buying iron and steel essentials,
such as, a plow, axe, shovel, skillet, stove, etc., had to
pay a 200% Federal
sales tax
on these items, if imported from Europe, or 200% more in price, if
bought from Northern manufacturers.

Southerners (slave and free)
paid over half of the taxes, yet represented only
one-third of the U.S. population and then 75% of the tax revenues collected
were spent in the North

Because of Lincoln's invasion,
Americans today pay over a 40% tax rate on
their earnings and possessions
, counting their taxes on income, payroll,
purchases, property, imports, gasoline, etc., to finance a trillion-dollar,
centralized, federal government.    

On March 21, 1861, in Savannah, Georgia, Confederate States Vice-President
Alexander Stephens stated:
        "The principles and position of the present administration (Lincoln's)
of the United States present some puzzling questions.  Notwithstanding
(in spite of) their professions of humanity, they are disinclined to give up the
benefits they derive from slave labor.
         "Their philanthropy yields to their interest.  Their idea of enforcing the
laws, has but
one object, and that is a collection of the taxes, raised by slave
to swell the funds necessary to meet their heavy appropriations (for
Northern industry)
         "The spoils (money) is what they are after — though they come from
the labor of the slave

By passing the Morrill Tariff Act and Corwin Amendment together, the U.S.
Congress offered the seceding States, this trade:
 Return to the Union and pay
an average tariff of
40% on all purchases and be guaranteed permanent slavery.  

The Confederate States refused the offer to return and on May 21, 1861 enacted
average 10% tariff on purchases from Europe.

February 14, 1861,
The New York Times wrote:
         "It is now proposed to reenact a highly protective (Morrill) Tariff, both
for revenue and protection
(of Northern manufacturing monopolies that did not
want to compete with low-priced European products)
         "We would be in a fix, with free trade at every Southern port, and a
prohibitory tariff at New York, Philadelphia and Boston
        "The duty (tax, tariff) on German machinery steel would be 216 per cent.;
on round machinery steel,
154 per cent.; and on blistered steel, 211 per cent."
Click to read New York Times Article

Free trade at Confederate States ports would result in all Americans being
able to buy imported steel products from Europe at
1/3 the price of Northern-
made steel products

only way for Lincoln to create these oppressively-high prices to enrich the
Wall Street monopolies, who elected him,
was to invade and conquer the
South and stop the free trade at Southern ports, so Wall Street's oppressive
import taxes could also be collected at Southern ports

Only by also collecting high tariffs at Southern ports, as was done at Northern
ports, could the Northern steel
monopolies force all Americans to pay 3 times
more in price for steel
than the price of imported European steel with no tariff.

Lincoln's Tax War was the last time Americans stood and fought against
oppressive taxes.

February 15, 1861 in Pittsburgh, U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln
his priority for passage of a high tariff
after his inauguration on March 4, 1861:
         "The condition of the treasury at this time would render an early
revision of the tariff
indispensable.  The Morrill (tariff) Bill, now pending
before Congress, may or may not become a law.  If, however, it shall not pass,
the whole subject will be one of the most pressing and important for the next
.”  (Paragraph 14)  Lincoln did not even mention slavery.  
Click to read Lincoln's Pittsburgh Speech  

December 25, 1860, the State of
South Carolina declared unfair taxes to be a
cause of secession in her
Address of South Carolina to the Slave-holding States:
         "The Southern States, now stand exactly in the same position towards
the Northern States, that the Colonies did towards Great Britain
.  The
Northern States, having the majority in Congress, claim the same power of
omnipotence in legislation as the British parliament.
         “The British parliament undertook to tax the Colonies, to promote
British interests.  
Between taxation without any representation, and taxation
without a representation adequate to protection,
there was no difference.
         “And so with the Southern States towards the Northern States, in the
vital matter of taxation
, they are in a minority in Congress.
         The people of the Southern States are not only taxed for the benefit
(high price protection) of the Northern States, but after the taxes are
three-fourths (75%) of them are expended at the North.”  
(Paragraphs 4-7)
Click to read Address of South Carolina to the Slave-holding States

January 29, 1861, in Causes of Secession, the State of Georgia stated:
            “The material prosperity of the North was greatly dependent on the
Federal Government; that of the South, not at all
.  In the first years of the
Republic the navigating, commercial and manufacturing interests of the North  
(i.e. Wall Street industries) began to seek profit and aggrandizement at the
expense of the agricultural interests
         “After having enjoyed (high price) protection (by high tariffs) to the
extent of
from 15 to 200 per cent upon their entire business for above thirty
, the (low tariff) Act of 1846 was passed.  It avoided sudden change, but
the principle was settled, and
free trade, low duties (tariffs), and economy in
public expenditures was the verdict of the American people
         “All these classes (Wall Street industries) saw this and felt it and cast
about for new allies
.  The anti-slavery sentiment (abolitionists) of the North
offered the best chance for success
(to gain enough Senate seats to reinstate
their high tariff)
.”   (Paragraphs 1-3)
Click to read Georgia's Causes of Secession

During the "Tariff of Abomination" crises (1828-1833), which almost
resulted in the South leaving the Federal union,
the Wall Street monopolies
had nothing to trade with
to entice the South to stay in the union and pay
their oppressive taxes
, so Wall Street retreated and lowered the Tariff.  

Whereupon, Wall Street started financing the
so-called "abolition" movement  
ultimately designed to deport Blacks out of the U.S.) and the so-called "Free
movement (designed to keep Blacks out of western States).  

By financing both movements, Wall Street gained, via the admission of the all
White western States, enough seats in the U.S. Senate to pass their
and Corwin Amendment together on March 2, 1861 and offer the South
this trade:
Permanent slavery in the South, in exchange for the South paying their
new 40% average Federal import tax
."  The South refused their offer.  

The North was willing to trade slavery for taxes throughout the war, but
the South always refused

On April 15, 1861, Abraham Lincoln officially declared war against the
Confederate States of America:  
         Whereas, the (revenue) laws of the United States have been for some
time past, and now are opposed by combinations too powerful to be
suppressed by the ordinary course, now, therefore, I call forth the militia of
the several States, to the aggregate number of
75,000 in order to suppress
said combinations, and
to cause the (revenue) laws to be duly executed.”
(I.e., create a compulsory Union to collect the tax).  (Paragraphs 1-2)
Click to read Lincoln's War Proclamation April 15, 1861

And again on April 19, 1861:
         “Whereas an insurrection against the Government of the United States
has broken out and
the laws of the United States for the collection of the
cannot be effectually executed therein:  Now, therefore, I have
further deemed it advisable to set on foot a blockade of the ports within the
States aforesaid.”
 (Paragraphs 1and 4)
Click to read Lincoln's War Proclamation April 19, 1861

Lincoln never even mentioned slavery in his two war Proclamations.

Again, on July 4, 1861,
Abraham Lincoln reaffirmed taxes as the only cause
of War
in his First Message to the U.S. Congress:
     My policy sought only to hold the public places and property not already
wrested from the Government
(four federal tax collection forts on the coast) and
to collect the revenue
.”   (Paragraph 4)  
Click to read Lincoln's First Message to Congress

No official act by Congress or Lincoln ever declared a war to abolish
, not even the Fake Emancipation Proclamation; and, without such
the war over slavery teaching remains completely false, offensive and
divisive hate speech

September 22, 1862, in his
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Abraham
       "I do hereby proclaim and declare that hereafter, as heretofore, the war
will be prosecuted for
the object of practically restoring the constitutional
relation between the United States and each of the States”
(i.e., reduce the
States from Nations into counties of the federal government to collect Lincoln's
oppressive tariffs to enrich the Wall Street tycoons, who elected Lincoln).  
(Paragraph 1)

Even in his
Proclamation Lincoln did not claim abolishing slavery was an
object of his war
.  Lincoln's Proclamation (Paragraph 3-4) offered the Southern
States three months to return to the Union, pay Lincoln's oppressive taxes, and
keep their slaves.  
None did.
Click to read Lincoln's Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation September 22,

January 1, 1863, in his final
Emancipation Proclamation, Abraham Lincoln
affirmed his
only reason for issuing, was:  “as a fit and necessary war measure
for suppressing said
(tax) rebellion” (Paragraph 3), by attempting to incite
slave insurrections that never occurred, as Britain did in 1776.
Click to read Lincoln's Final Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863

Lincoln's Fake Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order only, issued
half-way through the War, never voted on by Congress, and
exempted a million
slaves under Lincoln’s control from being freed,
including the four slaves of
Lincoln's top Commander, General U.S. Grant

Mrs. U.S. Grant
wrote in, The Personal Memoirs of Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant:
          “We rented our pretty little home (in St. Louis) and hired out our four
to persons whom we knew and who promised to be kind to them.
Eliza, Dan, Julia and John belonged to me.  When I visited the General
during the War
, I nearly always had Julia with me as nurse.”  (Pages 82-83)

It was impossible for the War to be over slavery, when both sides supported
slavery and owned slaves.

The Northern-controlled U.S. Congress even admitted West Virginia as a
Slave State
on June 20, 1863, with Lincoln's approval, just a few weeks before
Lincoln's hypocritical
Gettysburg Address.   

The Northern-controlled Congress
refused to pass an Amendment abolishing
slavery until January 31, 1865, three months before Appomattox.

only Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress and before the States for
ratification the entire war was their
Corwin Amendment, which guaranteed
permanent slavery in the U.S.

Only 5 of the 13 Confederate States mentioned slavery issues in their
Secession Ordinances
, i.e., the return of fugitive slaves; slavery in the U.S.
Territories; and Federal abolition

By leaving the voluntary Union, these States abandoned all claims regarding
the return of fugitive slaves and all claims to slavery in the U.S. Territories

The issue of Federal abolition was entirely eliminated as a cause of war by
Lincoln’s declaration in his
First Inaugural Address:
      “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution
of slavery in the States where it exists.  I believe I have
no lawful right to do   
so, and I have
no inclination to do so.”  (Paragraph 4);
and by the U.S. Congress passing the Corwin Amendment, which guaranteed
permanent slavery in the U.S.

The only issue of contention remaining was the average 40% Federal sales
tax on Southerners,
which required a compulsory Union to collect.

The term
"Free State" meant free of Blacks and Native Americans with only
free White residents in the States

For example,
Abraham Lincoln, ordered 38 Dakota Sioux Indians hung by
the neck at the same time during his War, in
the largest public hanging in
American history
on December 26, 1862 in Minnesota.

Lincoln ordered all the Dakota Sioux to be removed from the "Free
State" of Minnesota
and sent to the South Dakota territory.
Click to see photo and article, December 26, 1862

Abraham Lincoln did not want to live with Blacks, slave or free.  

Abraham Lincoln
          My first impulse would be to free all the slaves, and send them to
(Africa), to their own native land.  But a moment’s reflection would
convince me, that whatever of
high hope, (as I think there is) there may be in
, in the long run, its sudden execution is impossible.  What then?  Free
them, and
make them politically and socially, our equals?  My own feelings
will not admit of this
; and if mine would, we well know that those of the great
mass of White people will not.”
 (Lincoln's Speech in Peoria, Illinois October
16, 1854)
Click to read Lincoln's entire Speech, October 16, 1854

Abraham Lincoln also stated:
        "I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing
about in anyway the social and political equality of the White and Black
, [applause]-that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters
or jurors of Negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry
with White people; and
I will say in addition to this that there is a physical
difference between the White and Black races, which I believe will forever
forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality
          "And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together
there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any
other man am in favor of
having the superior position assigned to the White
." (Lincoln's Speech in Charleston, Illinois  September 18, 1858).
Click to read Lincoln's entire Speech, September 18, 1858

During the War, on August 14, 1862, Abraham Lincoln told a delegation of free
Black Americans:
      There is an unwillingness on the part of our people (Northern Whites)
for you free Colored people to remain with us.  It is better for us both,
therefore, to be separated
(deport Blacks out of the U.S.).”  (Lincoln's Speech
to Free Blacks, August 14, 1862)

Lincoln had requested and the
Northern-controlled Congress appropriated
the money to deport and colonize free Black Americans in foreign countries
Lincoln shipped hundreds of free Northern Blacks down to
poverty-stricken Haiti
Click to read Lincoln's entire Speech to Free Blacks, August 14, 1862

Abraham Lincoln's Second Annual Message to Congress on December 1,
Lincoln promotes in more detail his plan to deport Free Blacks out of the
United States and colonize them in foreign countries
, stating:
 "I can not make it better known than it already is, that I strongly favor
Click to read Lincoln's entire Speech, December 1, 1862

Meanwhile, down South, Jim Limber became the first Black American to be
a member of a Presidential family in February 1864, when Confederate
President Jefferson Davis’ adopted him, after rescuing the 8 year-old
orphan from being mistreated at a Black foster home in Richmond.  

President Davis registered free papers on Jim and he played with the other Davis
children in the Confederate White House during Lincoln’s Tax War.  
It was not
uncommon in the Old South for Blacks to take in orphaned Whites or for
Whites to take in orphaned Blacks
.  Jefferson Davis enjoyed the friendship and
fellowship of Blacks, both slave and free.

Black Confederate Veterans fought under the Confederate Battle Flag, attended
Confederate Veterans' Reunions, and received Confederate Veterans' Pensions
from Southern States, just as did Whites, Hispanics and Native American
Confederate Veterans.

 Secession (Withdrawal From A Voluntary Union)
Secession was the only real check and balance of power by the States over the  
federal government.  
Abraham Lincoln abolished this check and balance,
reducing the States to high-taxed colonies of the federal government.   

The Southern States were more right to withdraw from the voluntary
, called the United States, than the 13 Colonies were to declare
independence from Great Britain’s compulsory Union in 1776,
because Britain
formed the 13 Colonies, whereas,
the 13 independent States (Nations)
formed the United States

Abraham Lincoln was the most unpopular U.S. President ever, receiving
only 39% of the popular vote
and sneaked into Washington D.C., hiding
behind thousands of Federal soldiers to deliver his
First Inaugural Speech,
stating therein that
he would invade the South solely to collect taxes.

President-elect Jefferson Davis rode down Dexter Avenue in Montgomery,
in an open carriage,
without any security, to the cheers of thousands, and
delivered his
First Inaugural Speech from the steps of the Alabama Capitol.  

The Confederate States fought in self-defense for the States’ right to
remain “free, sovereign and independent”
, guaranteed by the Founding
3 times in bold print in the last paragraph of the Declaration of
Independence in 1776; the Articles of Confederation in 1778
(Article II);
the Peace Treaty with Britain in 1783 (Article I); and the U.S. Constitution
in 1789
(Amendment 10, which reserves powers to the States).
Click to read the statements in these Documents

Unless a union is voluntary, it is not truly a union, at all, but rather a
kingdom or empire
.  Lincoln invaded the independent States to force them
into a compulsory "union" held together by bayonets, against their will.  
Without agreement, there is no true union.

April 29, 1861
President Jefferson Davis, in his Message To The
Confederate States Congress,
          “During the war waged against Great Britain by her colonies on this
continent a common danger impelled them to a close alliance and to the
formation of a Confederation (in Article I, named ‘The United States of
         “The several States made explicit declaration in a distinct Article (II) -
that:   ‘each State retains its Sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and
every power, jurisdiction and right which is not by this Confederation
expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled.

         “The war of the Revolution was successfully waged, and resulted in the
Treaty of Peace with Great Britain in 1783, by the terms of which the several
States were each by name recognized to be independent  (Article I).          
          “The States endeavored in every possible form to exclude the idea that
the separate and independent sovereignty of each State was merged into one
common government and nation, and
to impress in the Constitution its true
character - that of
a compact (voluntary agreement) between independent
.  (Amendment 10)
          An organization (voluntary Union) created by the States to secure the
blessings of liberty and independence against foreign aggression,
has been
gradually perverted into a machine for their control
          The creature (federal government) has been exalted above its
(the States).”   (Paragraph 1-2)
Click to read President Davis' Message to the Confederate States Congress

It is impossible for secession, for any reason or no reason, by the Nations
(States) that created a voluntary Union,
to be a cause of war or a declaration
of war

If the Southern States could not withdraw in peace,
then the U.S. can not
secede from the United Nations in peace
or Britain from the European
Union, examples of voluntary unions, as once was the U.S.

Like the Southern States,
Britain's recent secession from the European
Union was
not a cause of war or a declaration of war.

Abraham Lincoln
alone declared war, stating three times (above) that the
only cause of his War was:  “to collect the revenue” from Southerners, by
changing the voluntary union of low-taxed independent States into a new,
compulsory Union of high-taxed colonies
of the federal government, as they
were under Britain.

Secession (leaving a voluntary union) and declaring war are two very different

Treason is defined in Article III, Section III of the U.S. Constitution:
       "Treason against the United States, shall consist ONLY in levying War
against them
(the States), or in adhering to their (the States') enemies, giving
them aid and comfort

According to the U.S. Constitution, Abraham Lincoln alone committed
, when he alone ordered the invasion of the sovereign, independent
of Florida and South Carolina with 11 armed warships under the
command of the
USS Harriet Lane and the invasion of the independent State of
Virginia with 75,000 Lincoln soldiers.

      How Abraham Lincoln Started His Tax War
April 8, 1861 Lincoln started his war, like the Japanese at Pearl Harbor, by a
surprise attack on Charleston Harbor with a fleet of U.S. warships
, led by
USS Harriet Lane, to occupy Fort Sumter, a Federal tax collection fort in
the territorial waters of South Carolina.

April 29, 1861, inside Alabama's Capitol,
President Jefferson Davis
described the South’s response of self-defense in his Message To the
Confederate States Congress
       The Declaration of War made against this Confederacy by Abraham
, the President of the United States, in his Proclamation issued on the
15th day of the present month, rendered it necessary, in my judgment, that you
should convene at the earliest practicable moment
to devise the measures
necessary for the defense of the country.
       "So utterly have the principles of the Constitution been corrupted in
the Northern mind that President Lincoln did not hesitate
to liken the
relations between a State and the United States to those which exist between
a county and the State
in which it is situated and by which it was created.
       "This is the lamentable and fundamental error on which rests the
policy that has
culminated in his Declaration of War against these
Confederate States
          "(Lincoln’s) preparations for an extensive military and naval
commenced in secrecy and on the 5th, 6th, and 7th of April
transports and vessels of war with troops, munitions, and military supplies
sailed from Northern ports bound Southward.
        That this maneuver (Lincoln’s surprise attack) failed in its purpose was
not the fault of those who contrived it.  A heavy tempest delayed the arrival of
the expedition
      “I directed a proposal to be made to the Commander of Fort Sumter that
we would abstain from directing our fire on Fort Sumter
, if he would
promise not to open fire on our forces unless first attacked.
       This proposal was refused and the conclusion was reached that the
design of the United States was to place the besieging (Confederate) force at
Charleston between the
simultaneous fire of the (U.S.) fleet and the fort.
          There remained, therefore, no alternative but to direct that the fort
(Sumter) should at once be reduced (on April 12). (Paragraphs 1-2, 8-9)
Click to read President Davis' First Message to Confederate States Congress

The South was totally right to oppose oppressive taxes!   Lincoln was totally
wrong to commit treason and invade the independent States to fatten the
wallets of his Wall Street owners!

Black and White Confederate States Veterans at Reunion in Huntsville,
Alabama in 1928
Black and White Confederate States Veterans at Reunion in the
Tutwiler Hotel in Birmingham, Alabama in 1931.
The Confederate States Army was one of the most diversified Armies in the
world with Black, White, Native Americans, Hispanics, Protestants, Catholics
and Jews fighting side by side against Wall Street's oppressive tax collectors.    
Photo of Holt Collier's family dedicating
his Confederate Veteran's Headstone.
Confederate States Soldiers in one of Lincoln's POW Camps.
Confederate States Veteran Richard
of the 43rd Virginia Cavalry
was imprisoned 19 months in one of
Lincoln's POW Camps.
       Jim Limber became the first Black
American to be a member of a
Presidential family in February 1864,
Confederate States President
Jefferson Davis
adopted him, after
rescuing the 8 year-old orphan from being
mistreated at a Black foster home in
       Davis registered free papers on Jim
and he played with the other Davis
children in the Confederate White House
during Lincoln’s War.  It was not
uncommon in the Old South for Blacks to
take in orphaned Whites or Whites to take
in orphaned Blacks.
      Meanwhile, Abraham Lincoln was  
shipping 500 Free Blacks to poverty-
stricken Haiti, after telling Black leaders
on August 14, 1862:  “There is an
unwillingness on the part of our people
(Northern Whites) for you free Colored
people to remain with us.  It is better for
us both, therefore, to be separated.”
       Lincoln did not want to live with
Blacks, slave or free, but Jefferson Davis
enjoyed the friendship and fellowship of
Blacks, both slave and free.  
Click to read more about Jim Limber
Mexican Confederate First Lt.
Joseph R. de la Garza,  3rd
Texas Infantry, CSA.
Cherokee Confederate Veterans at 1903 Confederate Veterans' Reunion in New Orleans.
Black Confederate Veterans at Montgomery
Confederate Veterans' Reunion in 1931.
Last Confederate Veterans' Reunion in 1944.  Photo taken on the steps of
Alabama's Capitol in Montgomery.  Seated in front is
Dr. R.A. Gwynn of
Birmingham, Alabama.
Black Confederate Veteran Holt Collier
was, one of the South's greatest bear
hunters, and a Scout and Sharpshooter in
the Confederate States 9th Texas Cavalry,
Company I, under
Captain Perry Evans.
     Holt Collier led an exciting life as a
Confederate soldier, cowboy, deputy,
bear hunter and guide for many famous
people, including President
, once tying a 235 pound black
bear to a tree for Roosevelt, which soon
became known throughout the world as

the "Teddy Bear" toy.
      Holt Collier tells of during Lincoln's  
   Captain Evans' Company was
detailed for scout duty along the

Mississippi River.  We did a heap of
good too; saved our folks property and
ran the Unions out.
    "The whole country was a wilderness
and if lost, I could always find the way
out.  I had hunted these woods.”
Click to read more about Holt Collier
Mexican Confederate Captain
Cristobal Benavides, 33rd Texas
Cavalry, CSA,  lost his right hand
fighting Lincoln's tax collectors.
Jewish Moses brothers and Confederate
States soldiers:  
Joshua (standing),
Isaac (left), and Perry Moses.
    Jewish Confederate soldier
Leon Fischel served as an Aide
to Confederate General
Sidney Johnston
Cuban Confederate Colonel Ambrosio
José Gonzales
was Chief of Artillery
for the CSA Department of South
Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
17 year-old Private Robert Cheatham
of the 1st Tennessee Regiment, CSA
fought and survived 4 years of Lincoln's
Tax War.
Confederate States 43rd Battalion, Virginia Cavalry, known as "Mosby's Rangers"
led by
Colonel John S. Mosby (center), known as "The Gray Ghost".
Cherokee Confederate General
Stand Watie, the Last Confederate
States General to surrender.
Monument to Cherokee Confederate Veterans.
       Confederate States secret agent
Antonia Ford (above) was commissioned
as an honorary aid-decamp to General
for her valuable information on
Lincoln's invaders' plans, strengths, and
   Ford became famous for passing on
information about Federal General
location to Confederate
John Mosby ("The Gray Ghost"),
which resulted in Mosby's Rangers riding
undetected through the midst of 2,500
Federals and capturing 33 Federal
officers, including General Stoughton,
asleep in bed.  
   When Mosby, himself, swatted General
Stoughton on the rump with his sword to
awaken him, Stoughton responded:     
     "What is it, have you captured that
rascal Mosby?"  
    To which Mosby replied,  "No sir, he
has captured you!"
    Federal General Stoughton's capture
in his own bed was so embarrassing to
Lincoln that he ordered a counter-spy
investigation by the Pinkerton Agency,
which resulted in Antonia Ford being
arrested and imprisoned in the old Capitol
Click to read more about Antonia Ford
   Confederate Nurse Kate Cumming
served from the Battle of Shilo in 1862
to the end of Lincoln's War in 1865.  
    Cumming kept a valuable Journal
about the people, places and events of
those years, which may be purchased at
bookstores online and read today.
     Cuban Confederate States secret agent
Panchita Sanchez (photo in her latter
years), who along with her two sisters:  
Lola and Eugenia Sanchez, alerted the
Confederate Cavalry to a surprise attack
on St. Augustine, Florida by Federal
warships on the St. John's River.
     May 20, 1864, Lola Sanchez and her
sisters overheard Federals, who had
captured their home, talking on the porch
about their surprise attack.
      While her two sisters cooked and fed
the Federals, Lola slipped away in the
middle of the night and rode horseback
through the St. John's River Swamp, then
rowed across the River and alerted
Confederate Captain
John Dickison, 2nd
Florida Cavalry, CSA.
        Lola then crossed the River again
and rode back to her home, before the
Federals noticed her absence.
      The three sisters information resulted
in the Confederate States Army protecting
St. Augustine, capturing the warship
, the other gunboats, tons of
supplies and capturing or killing all of the
Federals at the "Battle of Horse Landing".
      The Confederate soldiers then named
one of the captured boats,
"The Three
" in honor of Panchita, Lola and
Click to read more about The Three Sisters
          Confederate States secret agent
Robbie Woodruff (above), along with
her cousin
Mary Kate Patterson,
joined the Confederate underground
resistance in Mississippi.
         As a teenager, Robbie was
assigned to collect and convey
intelligence information for the CSA
Coleman Scouts.   
      Robbie often walked ten miles to
collect Confederate dispatches and
placed them in a designated hollow
stump for Confederate couriers to
secretly retrieve.
   She consistently smuggled medical
supplies and military information out
of Nashville into Confederate hands.
       She was once responsible for
delivery of a complete diagram of
federal fortifications around Nashville
(absconded from Federal General

Grenville Dodge
, who later hung a
fellow Confederate agent, the famous
Sam Davis.)
       Sam Davis and Robbie relied on
each other as close confidantes.
      Days before General Dodge hung
Sam Davis, Mary Kate Patterson and
Robbie had a picnic with Sam in
Raines Thicket, just a mile from the
Patterson home.    
        This was their last encounter, as
Sam would leave for Chattanooga,

only to be captured before arrival.
   Sam was offered a horse, arms and
an escort to the Confederate border,
along with his life, to reveal who gave
him the documents he was carrying.  
Yet, he refused.
       Records have indicated he was
protecting the information handed to
him by
Robbie Woodruff.
Click to read more about Robbie
     Jewish Confederate Phoebe Yates
was the female administrator
or matron of Chimborazo Hospital at
Richmond, Virginia, one of the largest
hospitals in the world.
        She assumed the responsibility at
the age of 39 and eventually over
15,000 patients came under her direct
care during Lincoln's War.
         Pember remained at Chimborazo
until the Confederate surrender in

April 1865 and then published her:  
     A Southern Woman's Story: Life in
Confederate Richmond
, which may be
purchased at bookstores online and

read today.
The famous educator Booker T. Washington
strongly supported Confederate Monuments
erected to honor our Confederate States Veterans,